2. März Section from the Papyrus of Ani (Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead) showing the Nefertari is brought before the god Re-Horakhty by Horus. Juni Die Parallelen zwischen Horus und Jesus sind unübersehbar! (Ähnliche Parallelen finden. The Ritual: The Egyptian Book of the Dead Dr. Book Of Horus ist ein Slotspiel mit fünf Walzen, 10 Auszahlungslinien, Freespins und Gamble-Feature. Wenn 3 oder mehr Streusymbole (Bücher) auf den.
He is depicted in the form of a man having a beetle for a head, and this insect was his type and emblem among ancient nations, because it was believed to be self-begotten and self-produced; to this notion we owe the myriads of beetles or.
The seat of the god Khepera was in the boat of the sun, and the pictures which present us with this fact only illustrate an idea which is as old, at least, as the pyramid of Unas, for in this monument it is said of the king: In the XVIIIth dynasty Queen Hatshepset declared herself to be "the creator of things which came into being like Khepera", and in later times the scribes were exceedingly fond of playing upon the word used as a noun, adjective, verb and proper name.
Tum or Atemu i. It would seem that he usurped the position of Ra in Egyptian mythology, or at any rate that the priests of Annu succeeded in causing their local god, either separately or joined with Ra, to be accepted as the leader of the divine group.
He represented the evening or night sun, and as such he is called in the XVth chapter of the Book of the Dead "divine god," "self-created," "maker of the gods," "creator of men," who stretched out the heavens," "the lightener of the tuat with his two eyes," etc.
The "cool breezes of the north wind," for which every dead man prayed, were supposed to proceed from him. He is, as M. Ra was the name given to the sun by the Egyptians in a remote antiquity, but the meaning of the word, or the attribute which they ascribed to the sun by it, is unknown.
Ra was the invisible emblem of God, and was regarded as the god of this earth, to whom offerings and sacrifices were made daily; and when he appeared above the horizon at the creation, time began.
In the pyramid texts the soul of the deceased makes its way to where Ra is in heaven, and Ra is entreated to give it a place in the "bark of millions of years" wherein he sails over the sky.
The Egyptians attributed to the sun a morning and an evening boat, and in these the god sat accompanied by Khepera and Tmu, his own forms in the morning and evening respectively.
In his daily course he vanquished night and darkness, and mist and cloud disappeared from before his rays; subsequently the Egyptians invented the moral conception of the sun, representing the victory of right over wrong and of truth over falsehood.
From a natural point of view the sun was synonymous with movement, and hence typified the life of man; and the setting of the one typified the death of the other.
Usually Ra is depicted in human form, sometimes with the head of a hawk, and sometimes without, As early as the time of the pyramid texts we find Ra united with Tmu to form the chief god of Annu, and at the same period a female counterpart Rat was assigned to him.
Shu , the second member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the firstborn son of Ra, Ra-Tmu, or Tum, by the goddess Hathor, the sky, and was the twin brother of Tefnut.
He typified the light, he lifted up the sky, Nut, from the earth, Seb, and placed it upon the steps which were in Khemennu.
He is usually depicted in the form of a man, who wears upon his head a feather or feathers and holds in his hand the sceptre.
At other times he appears in the form of a man with upraised arms; on his head he has the emblem , and he is often accompanied by the four pillars of heaven, i.
Tefnut , the third member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the daughter of Ra, Ra-Tmu, or Tmu, and twin-sister of Shu; she represented in one form moisture, and in another aspect she seems to personify the power of sunlight.
In the pyramid texts they play a curious part, Shu being supposed to carry away hunger from the deceased, and Tefnut his thirst.
Seb or Qeb , the fourth member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the son of Shu, husband of Nut, and by her father of Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys.
Originally he was the god of the earth, and is called both the father of the gods, and the " erpa i. In many places he is called the "great cackler" and he was supposed to have laid the egg from which the world sprang.
Already in the pyramid texts he has become a god of the dead by virtue of representing the earth wherein the deceased was laid.
Ausar or Osiris , the sixth member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the son of Seb and Nut, and the husband of his sister Isis, the father of "Horus, the son of Isis," and the brother of Set and Nephthys.
The version of his sufferings and death by Plutarch has been already described see p. Whatever may have been the foundation of the legend, it is pretty certain that his character as a god of the dead was well defined long before the versions of the pyramid texts known to us were written, and the only important change which took place in the views of the Egyptians concerning him in later days was the ascription to him of the attributes which in the early dynasties were regarded as belonging only to Ra or to Ra-Tmu.
Originally Osiris was a form of the sun-god, and, speaking generally, he may be said to have represented the sun after he had set, and as such was the emblem of the motionless dead; later texts identify him with the moon.
The Egyptians asserted that he was the father of the gods who had given him birth, and, as he was the god both of yesterday and of to-day, he became the type of eternal existence and the symbol of immortality; as such he usurped not only the attributes of Ra, but those of every other god, and at length he was both the god of the dead and the god of the living.
As judge of the dead he was believed to exercise functions similar to those attributed to God. Alone among all the many gods of Egypt, Osiris was chosen as the type of what the deceased hoped to become when, his body having been mummified in the prescribed way, and ceremonies proper to the occasion having been performed and the prayers said, his glorified body should enter into his presence in heaven; to him as "lord of eternity," by which title as judge of the dead he was commonly addressed, the deceased appealed to make his flesh to germinate and to save his body from decay.
A very complete series of illustrations of the forms of Osiris is given by Lanzone in his Dizionario , tavv. The ceremonies connected with the celebration of the events of the sufferings, the death and the resurrection of Osiris occupied a very prominent part in the religious observances of the Egyptians, and it seems as if in the month of Choiak a representation of.
Loret in Recueil de Travaux , tom. A perusal of this work explains the signification of many of the ceremonies connected with the burial of the dead, the use of amulets, and certain parts of the funeral ritual; and the work in this form being of a late date proves that the doctrine of immortality, gained through the god who was "lord of the heavens and of the earth, of the underworld and of the waters, of the mountains, and of all which the sun goeth round in his course," had remained unchanged for at least four thousand years of its existence.
Auset or Isis , the seventh member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus; her woes have been described both by Egyptian and Greek writers.
The animal sacred to her was the cow, hence she sometimes wears upon her head the horns of that animal accompanied by plumes and feathers.
In one aspect she is identified with the goddess Selk or Serq, and she then has upon her head a scorpion, the emblem of that goddess; in another aspect she is united to the star Sothis, and then a star is added to her crown.
As a nature goddess she is seen standing in the boat of the sun, and she was probably the deity of the dawn. Heru or Horus , the sun-god, was originally a totally distinct god from Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, but from the earliest times it seems that the two gods were confounded, and that the attributes of the one were ascribed to the other; the fight which Horus the sun-god waged against night and darkness was also at a very early period identified with the combat between Horus, the son of.
Isis, and his brother Set. The visible emblem of the sun-god was at a very early date the hawk is, which was probably the first living thing worshipped by the early Egyptians; already in the pyramid texts the hawk on a standard is used indiscriminately with to represent the word "god.
Horus , the son of Osiris and Isis, appears in Egyptian texts usually as Heru-p-khart, " Horus the child," who afterwards became the "avenger of his father Osiris," and occupied his throne, as we are told in many places in the Book of the Dead.
In the pyramid texts the deceased is identified with Heru-p-khart, and a reference is made to the fact that the god is always represented with a finger in his mouth.
A very interesting figure of this god represents him holding his eyes in his hands; see Lanzone, op. Set or Sutekh the eighth member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the son of Seb and Nut, and the husband of his sister Nephthys.
The worship of this god is exceedingly old, and in the pyramid texts we find that be is often mentioned with Horus and the other gods of the Heliopolitan company in terms of reverence.
He was also believed to perform friendly offices for the deceased, and to be a god of the Sekhet-Aaru, or abode of the blessed dead.
He is usually depicted in human form with the head of an animal which has not yet been identified; in later times the head of the ass was confounded with it, but the figures of the god in bronze which are preserved in the British Museum and elsewhere prove beyond a doubt that the head of Set is that of an animal unknown to us.
In the early dynasties he was a beneficent god, and one whose favour was sought after by the living and by the dead, and so late as the XIXth dynasty kings delighted to call themselves "beloved of Set.
Originally Set, or Sut, represented the natural night and was the opposite of Horus; that Horus and Set were opposite aspects or forms of the same god is proved by the figure given by Lanzone Dizionario , tav.
Nebt-het or Nephthys the last member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the daughter of Seb and Nut, the sister of Osiris and Isis, and the.
In the pyramid of Unas, l. When the sun rose at the creation out of the primeval waters, Nephthys occupied a place in his boat with Isis and other deities; as a nature goddess she either represents the day before sunrise or after sunset, but no portion of the night.
She is depicted in the form of a woman, having upon her head the hieroglyphics which form her name, "lady of the house". A legend preserved by Plutarch makes her the mother of Anpu or Anubis by Osiris.
In Egyptian texts Anpu is called the son of Ra. Anpu , or Anubis, the son of Osiris or Ra, sometimes by Isis and sometimes by Nephthys, seems to represent as a nature god either the darkest part of the twilight or the earliest dawn.
In the legend of Osiris and Isis, Anubis played a prominent part in connexion with the dead body of Osiris, and in papyri we see him standing as a guard and protector of the deceased lying upon the bier; in the judgment scene he is found as the guard of the balance, the pointer of which he watches with great diligence.
He became the recognized god of the sepulchral chamber, and eventually presided over the whole of the "funeral Mountain. Another form of Anubis was the god Ap-uat , the of the pyramid texts, or "Opener of the ways," who also was depicted in the form of a jackal; and the two gods are often confounded.
Among the primeval gods are two, Hu and Saa who are seen in the boat of the sun at the creation. They are the children of Tmu or Tmu-Ra, but the exact part which they play as nature gods has not yet, it seems, been satisfactorily made out.
The first mention of them in the pyramid texts records their subjugation by the deceased, but in the Theban Book of the Dead.
Tehuti or Thoth represented the divine intelligence which at creation uttered the words that were carried into effect by Ptah and Khnemu.
He was self produced, and was the great god of the earth, air, sea and sky; and he united in himself the attributes of many gods.
He was the scribe of the gods, and, as such, he was regarded as the inventor of all the arts and sciences known to the Egyptians; some of his titles are "lord of writing," "master of papyrus," "maker of the palette and the ink-jar," "the mighty speaker," "the sweet tongued"; and the words and compositions which he recited on behalf of the deceased preserved the latter from the influence of hostile powers and made him invincible in the "other world.
As the chronologer of heaven and earth, he became the god of the moon; and as the reckoner of time, he obtained his name Tehuti , i. It has been thought that there were two gods called Thoth, one being a form of Shu; but the attributes belonging to each have not yet been satisfactorily defined.
Maat , the wife of Thoth, was the daughter of Ra, and a very ancient goddess; she seems to have assisted Ptah and Khnemu in carrying out rightly the work of creation ordered by Thoth.
There is no one word which will exactly describe the Egyptian conception of Maat both from a physical and from a moral point of view; but the fundamental idea of the word is " straight," and from the Egyptian texts it is clear that maat meant right, true, truth, real, genuine, upright, righteous, just, steadfast, unalterable, etc.
Thus already in the Prisse papyrus it is said, "Great is maat , the mighty and unalterable, and it hath never been broken since the time of Osiris," and Ptah-hetep counsels his listener to "make maat , or right and truth, to germinate.
Het-heru , or Hathor the "house of Horus," was the goddess of the sky wherein Horus the sun-god rose and set. Subsequently a great number of goddesses of the same name were developed from her, and these were identified with Isis, Neith, Iusaset, and many other goddesses whose attributes they absorbed.
A group of seven Hathors is also mentioned, and these appear to have partaken of the nature of good fairies. In one form Hathor was the goddess of love, beauty,.
Often she has the form of a cow--the animal sacred to her--and in this form she appears as the goddess of the tomb or Ta-sertet, and she provides meat and drink for the deceased.
Meht-urt is the personification of that part of the sky wherein the sun rises, and also of that part of it in which he takes his daily course; she is depicted in the form of a cow, along the body of which the two barks of the sun are seen sailing.
Already in the pyramid texts we find the attribute of judge ascribed to Meh-urt, and down to a very late date the judgment of the deceased in the hall of double Maat in the presence of Thoth and the other gods was believed to take place in the abode of Meh-urt.
Net or Neith , "the divine mother, the lady of heaven, the mistress of the gods," was one of the most ancient deities of Egypt, and in the pyramid texts she appears as the mother of Sebek.
In one form she was the goddess of the loom and shuttle, and also of the chase; in this aspect she was identified by the Greeks with Athene.
She is depicted in the form of a woman, having upon her head the shuttle or arrows, or she wears the crown and holds arrows, a bow, and a sceptre in her left hand; she also appears in the form of a cow.
She was the personification of the burning heat of the sun, and as such was the destroyer of the enemies of Ra and Osiris.
A good set of illustrations of this goddess will be found in Lanzone, op. Bast , according to one legend, was the mother of Nefer-Tmu.
She was the personification of the gentle and fructifying heat of the sun, as opposed to that personified by Sekhet. The cat was sacred to Bast, and the goddess is usually depicted cat-headed.
The most famous seat of her worship was the city of Bubastis, the modern Tell Basta, in the Delta. Neheb-ka is the name of a goddess who is usually represented with the head of a serpent, and with whom the deceased identifies himself.
Sebak a form of Horus the sun-god, must be distinguished from Sebak the companion of Set, the opponent of Osiris; of each of these gods the crocodile was the sacred animal, and for this reason probably the gods themselves were confounded.
Sebak-Ra, the lord of Ombos, is usually depicted in human form with the head of a crocodile, surmounted by , , or , or.
Amsu or Amsi is one of the most ancient gods of Egypt. He personified the power of generation, or the reproductive force of nature; he was the "father of his own mother," and was identified with "Horus the mighty," or with Horus the avenger of his father Un-nefer or Osiris.
He is depicted usually in the form of a man standing upon; and he has upon his head the plumes and holds the flail in his right hand, which is raised above his shoulder.
Neb-er-tcher , a name which originally implied the "god of the universe," but which was subsequently given to Osiris, and indicated the god after the completed reconstruction of his body, which had been hacked to pieces by Set.
Un-nefer a name of Osiris in his capacity of god and judge of the dead in the underworld. Some make these words to mean the "good being," and others the "beautiful hare.
Mert or Mer-sekert the lover of silence," is a name of Isis or Hathor as goddess of the underworld. I am he who bringeth along his father, and his mother, by means of his staff.
The way shall be opened to him that hath power over his feet, and he shall see the Great God in the Boat of Ra, when souls are counted therein at the bows, and when the years also are counted up.
Grant that the Eye of Horus, which maketh the adornments of splendour to be firm on the forehead of Ra, may deliver my soul for me, and let darkness cover your faces, O ye who would imprison Osiris.
O keep not captive my soul. O keep not ward over my shadow, but let a way be opened for my soul and my shadow, and let them see the Great God in the shrine on the day of the counting of souls, and let them hold converse with Osiris, whose habitations are hidden, and those who guard the members of Osiris, and who keep ward over the Spirit-souls, and who hold captive the shadows of the dead, and who would work evil against me, so that they shall [not] work evil against me.
A way shall be for KA with thee, and thy soul shall be prepared by those who keep ward over the members of Osiris, and who hold captive the shadows of the dead.
Heaven shall not keep thee fast, the earth shall not hold thee captive. Thou shalt not live with the beings who slay, but thou shalt be master of thy legs, and thou shalt advance to thy body straightway in the earth, [and to] those who belong to the shrine of Osiris and guard his members.
I am he who sendeth forth light over the Thigh of heaven. I come forth in heaven. I sit down by the Light-god Khu. O I am helpless.
I am helpless in the regions of those who plunder in Khert-Neter, I the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, in peace. My head is sealed up, Thoth.
Perfect is the Eye of Horus. I have delivered the Eye of Horus which shineth with splendours on the brow of Ra, the Father of the gods, [I am] that self-same Osiris, [the dweller in] Amentet.
Osiris knoweth his day, and he knoweth that he shall live through his period of life; I shall have by being with him. I am the Moon-god Aah, the dweller among the gods.
I shall not come to an end. Stand up therefore, O Horus, for thou art counted among the gods. The Am Khent priest Nefer-uben-f, whose word is truth, saith: Behold, I have come unto thee.
I have forced a way through the Tuat. I see my father Osiris. I drive away the darkness. He hath counted the heart of Set. I have made offerings for my father Osiris.
I have opened all the ways in heaven and on earth. I have become a Spirit-body and a Spirit-soul, who is equipped. Hail, every god and every Spirit-soul, I have made the ways.
Open is the land of Unu. Shut is the head of Thoth. I am that same Osiris who dwelleth in Amentet. Osiris knoweth his day, which cometh to an end.
I am Set, the Father of the Gods. I shall never come to an end. Hail, thou One, who shinest from the moon. Grant that this Osiris Ani may come forth among thy multitudes who are at the portal.
Let him be with the Light-God. Let the Tuat be opened to him. Behold, the Osiris Ani shall come forth by day to perform everything which he wisheth upon the earth among those who are living [thereon].
He hath performed the decree which hath been spoken to the mariners at eventide, and the Osiris Nu, whose word is truth, shall live after his death, even as doth Ra every day.
Behold, most certainly Ra was born yesterday, and the Osiris Nu was born yesterday. And every god shall rejoice in the life of the Osiris Nu, even as they rejoice in the life of Ptah, when he appeareth from the Great House of the Aged One which is in Anu.
Verily, I am here. I have passed through the Tuat. I have seen Father Osiris. I have scattered the gloom of night. I am his beloved one. I have come, I have seen my Father Osiris.
I have stabbed the heart of Suti. I have made offerings to my Father Osiris. I have opened every way in heaven and on the earth.
I am the son who loveth his Fathers sic Osiris. I am a Spirit-body. I am a Spirit-soul. Hail, every god and every Spirit-soul.
I have made the way [to Osiris]. I the Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth. I have shot arrows, and I have wounded my prey. I have arrived at the domains.
Grant that the Osiris Ani may come in peace. I have cleft the horizon. I have traversed the earth [following in] his footsteps.
I have conquered the mighty Spirit-souls because I am equipped for millions of years with words of power. I eat with my mouth.
I evacuate with my body. Behold, I am the God of the Tuat! Let these things be given unto me, the Osiris Ani, in perpetuity withou fail or diminution.
The Osiris Nu saith: I have come forth from the horizon against my enemies. I have not permitted him to escape from me. I have stretched out my hand like that of the Lord of the Urrt Crown.
I have lifted up my feet even as the Uraei-goddesses lift themselves up. I have not permitted the enemy [to be saved] from me.
As for mine enemy, he hath been given to me, and he shall not be delivered from me. I stand up like Horus.
I sit down like Ptah. I am strong like Thoth. I am mighty like Tem.
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